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Scientists Find Way to Shake Viruses to Death

Tuesday, March 04, 2008
By Michael Schirber

Scientists may one day be able to destroy viruses in the same way that opera singers presumably shatter wine glasses.

New research mathematically determined the frequencies at which simple viruses could be shaken to death.

“The capsid of a virus is something like the shell of a turtle,” said physicist Otto Sankey of Arizona State University. “If the shell can be compromised [by mechanical vibrations], the virus can be inactivated.”

Recent experimental evidence has shown that laser pulses tuned to the right frequency can kill certain viruses. However, locating these so-called resonant frequencies is a bit of trial and error.

“Experiments must just try a wide variety of conditions and hope that conditions are found that can lead to success,” Sankey told LiveScience.

To expedite this search, Sankey and his student Eric Dykeman have developed a way to calculate the vibrational motion of every atom in a virus shell.

From this, they can determine the lowest resonant frequencies.

As an example of their technique, the team modeled the satellite tobacco necrosis virus and found this small virus resonates strongly around 60 gigahertz (one gigahertz is a billion cycles per second), as reported in the Jan. 14 issue of Physical Review Letters.

A virus’ death knell

All objects have resonant frequencies at which they naturally oscillate. Pluck a guitar string and it will vibrate at a resonant frequency.

But resonating can get out of control. A famous example is the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which warped and finally collapsed in 1940 due to a wind that rocked the bridge back and forth at one of its resonant frequencies.

Viruses are susceptible to the same kind of mechanical excitation. An experimental group led by K. T. Tsen from Arizona State University have recently shown that pulses of laser light can induce destructive vibrations in virus shells.

“The idea is that the time that the pulse is on is about a quarter of a period of a vibration,” Sankey said. “Like pushing a child on a swing from rest, one impulsive push gets the virus shaking.”

It is difficult to calculate what sort of push will kill a virus, since there can be millions of atoms in its shell structure.

A direct computation of each atom’s movements would take several hundred thousand gigabytes of computer memory, Sankey explained.

He and Dykeman have found a method to calculate the resonant frequencies with much less memory.

In practice

The team plans to use their technique to study other, more complicated viruses. However, it is still a long way from using this to neutralize the viruses in infected people.

One challenge is that laser light cannot penetrate the skin very deeply. But Sankey imagines that a patient might be hooked up to a dialysis-like machine that cycles blood through a tube where it can be hit with a laser. Or perhaps, ultrasound can be used instead of lasers.

These treatments would presumably be safer for patients than many antiviral drugs that can have terrible side effects.

Normal cells should not be affected by the virus-killing lasers or sound waves because they have resonant frequencies much lower than those of viruses, Sankey said.

Moreover, it is unlikely that viruses will develop resistance to mechanical shaking, as they do to drugs.

“This is such a new field, and there are so few experiments, that the science has not yet had sufficient time to prove itself,” Sankey said. “We remain hopeful but remain skeptical at the same time.”
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Schumann Resonance

I was reading up on frequencies recently, specifically on the Schumann Resonance (7.83 Hz), when I came across a website called “Earth Breathing, authored by Ingrid Pastl-Dickenson, a writer, lecturer, and researcher into the biological effects of Electromagnetic Pollution.  Ingrid’s website is full of information about how frequencies were first discovered, and just what happens to our bodies when we are bombarded with non-natural, man-made frequencies.  What I read there was everything I had been researching about EMF pollution, along with how our bodies should be resonating at 7.83 hz.   I emailed Ingrid, and she was kind enough to respond back and allow me to post some of the information from her website.    Ingrid really opened my eyes to the global problem of EMF pollution, not only how it affects people, but all forms of life, including plants and animals.  Be sure to visit Ingrid’s website, www.earthbreathing.co.uk, for more information.  Ingrid is also a founder of the Bio Electromagnetic Research Initiative (BEMRI), which conducts research on Visible Light Communication (VLC), a much safer alternative to EMF.  See the BEMRI website, www.bemri.org, to learn what is being done to get the word out about VLC.

PLEASE NOTE:  Ingrid Dickenson and BEMRI.org do NOT endorse, and are NOT affiliated with Perfect World Solutions/Bionic Band products, or any other products marketed for EMF protection.  Please do not contact Ingrid or BEMRI.org reference these products.

Below are excerpts from Ingrid’s website.  Thanks Ingrid, for this fascinating information!

The Discovery of Schumann Resonance

When we consider that the ionosphere surrounding our planet is electrically positive charged whilst the earth’s surface carries a negative charge, we must conclude that this amounts to a prevailing electrical tension within the earth/ionosphere cavity. This tension is discharged when thunderstorms develop in this cavity. In physics two concentric electrically charged balls, one placed inside the other, are called ball condensers, or capacitors.The inside of the ionosphere layer is used in wireless information transfer to bounce off radio waves emitted by transmitters on the earth’s surface. In this way the information can be transferred over large distances.

The physicist and inventor Nikola Tesla was the first to carry out wireless energy experiments at Colorado Springs, USA, which produced such powerful electrical tensions that they resulted in the creation of artificial lightning. These lightning flashes also produced radio waves. Due to their extremely low frequency these waves could penetrate the earth without resistance and thereby Tesla discovered the resonance frequency of the earth. Unfortunately Tesla was before his time and his discoveries were not taken seriously.

It wasn’t until more than half a century later in 1952, when the German physicist Professor W.O.Schumann of the Technical University of Munich predicted that there are electromagnetic standing waves in the atmosphere, within the cavity formed by the surface of the earth and the ionosphere. This came about by Schumann teaching his students about the physics of electricity. During a lesson about ball condensers he asked them to calculate the frequency between the inner and outer ball, meaning the earth and ionosphere layer. They came up with a calculation of 10Hz.

This was confirmed in 1954 when measurements by Schumann and König detected resonances at a main frequency of 7.83 Hz. In the years following this discovery, several investigators worldwide have researched “Schumann resonance” and a number of properties and characteristics have now been established.

Schumann Resonance Properties

The spherical earth-ionosphere cavity is created by the conductive surface of the earth and the outer boundary of the ionosphere, separated by non-conducting air. Electromagnetic impulses are generated by electrical discharges such as lightning, the main excitation source, and spread laterally into the cavity. Lightning discharges have a “high-frequency component”, involving frequencies between 1 kHz and 30 kHz, followed by a “low-frequency component” consisting of waves and frequencies below 2 kHz and gradually increasing amplitude. This produces electromagnetic waves in the very low frequency (VLF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) ranges.ELF waves at 3 Hz to 300 Hz are propagated as more or less strongly attenuated waves in the space between the earth and the ionosphere, which provides a waveguide for the signals. Certain wavelengths circumnavigate the earth with little attenuation due to the fact that standing waves are formed within the cavity, the circumference of which is “approximately equal to the wavelength which an electromagnetic wave with a frequency of about 7.8 Hz would have in free space” (König, 1979, p34). It is the waves of this frequency and its harmonics at 14, 20, 26, 33, 39 and 45 Hz that form Schumann Resonances.

On a global scale the total resonant spectrum is the effect of the global lightning worldwide which is estimated at an average of 100 strokes per second. Since there is a concentration of lightning activity during the afternoon in Southeast Asia, Africa and America there are Schumann Resonance amplitude peaks at 10, 16 and 22 UT (universal time), with activity over America around 22 UT being dominant.

There are also +/-0.5 Hz variations in the center frequency, caused by a diurnal increase in ionization of the ionosphere as a result of radiation from the sun, having the effect of reducing the height of the ionosphere at 12 local time. Another factor which influences center frequency is sunspot activity.

A Tuning Fork for Life

Although the existence of the Schumann Resonance is an established scientific fact, there are very few scientists who are aware of the importance of this frequency as a tuning fork for Life. I propose that it is not merely a phenomenon caused by lightning in the atmosphere, but a very important electromagnetic standing wave, acting as background frequency and influencing biological oscillators within the mammalian brain.At the time when Schumann published his research results in the journal `Technische Physik’, Dr Ankermueller, a physician, immediately made the connection between the Schumann resonance and the alpha rhythm of brainwaves. He found the thought of the earth having the same natural resonance as the brain very exciting and contacted Professor Schumann, who in turn asked a doctorate candidate to look into this phenomenon. This candidate was Herbert König who became Schumann’s successor at Munich University. König demonstrated a correlation between Schumann Resonances and brain rhythms. He compared human EEG recordings with natural electromagnetic fields of the environment (1979) and found that the main frequency produced by Schumann oscillations is very close to the frequency of alpha rhythms.

Natural electromagnetic processes in the environment (I-IV), human EEG readings in comparison. Schumann oscillations (I) and the EEG a-rhythm, as well as locally conditioned fluctuations of the electric field (II) and the EEG d-rhythm, show a noticable similarity in their temporal variation. From König, 1979.

Dr König carried out further measurements of Schumann resonance and eventually arrived at a frequency of exactly 7.83 Hz, which is even more interesting, as this frequency is one which applies to mammals. For instance, septal driving of the hippocampal rhythm in rats has been found to have a minimum threshold at 7.7 Hz (Gray, 1982).

One of the foremost researchers in this field is Dr Wolfgang Ludwig, who has been investigating Schumann Resonance and its place in nature for many years.

The Research of Dr Wolfgang Ludwig

It was Dr Wolfgang Ludwig who carried out further measurements whilst writing his thesis on the Schumann Resonance. His aim was to measure what kind of natural signals actually exist in a healthy environment. He became aware of the fact that due to manmade electromagnetic signals within the atmosphere, the accurate measurement of Schumann waves was almost impossible in the city. For this reason he decided to take measurements out at sea where, due to good electrical conductivity, the Schumann waves are stronger. He than had the idea to take underground measurements in mines. Here he recognized that the magnetic field of the earth fluctuated too. This was also investigated by Dr Robert Becker in his book `Electricity and Vitality: The spark of Life’.Dr Ludwig came up with an excellent idea to take accurate measurements. When taking measurements at the earth’s surface, the reading is the result of two signals, one coming from above and one from below. But subsequently taking measurements below ground makes it possible to come up with exact readings by separating the two.

YIN and YANG

During his research Dr Ludwig came across the ancient Chinese teachings which state that Man needs two environmental signals: the YANG (masculine) signal from above and the YIN (feminine) signal from below. This description fits the relatively strong signal of the Schumann wave surrounding our planet being YANG and the weaker geomagnetic waves coming from below, from within the planet, being the YIN signalThe Chinese teachings state that to achieve perfect health, both signals must be in balance. Dr Ludwig found that this is indeed the case. He writes in his book `Informative Medizin’ that research carried out by E.Jacobi at the University of Duesseldorf showed that the one sided use of Schumann (YANG) wave simulation without the geomagnetic (YIN) signal caused serious health problems. On the other hand, the absence of Schumann waves creates a similar situation. Professor R.Wever from the Max Planck Institute for Behavioural Physiology in Erling-Andechs, built an underground bunker which completely screened out magnetic fields. Student volunteers lived there for four weeks in this hermetically sealed environment. Professor Wever noted that the student’s circadian rhythms diverged and that they suffered emotional distress and migraine headaches. As they were young and healthy, no serious health conditions arose, which would not have been the case with older people or people with a compromised immune system. After only a brief exposure to 7.8 Hz (the very frequency which had been screened out), the volunteers health stabilized again.

The same complaints were reported by the first astronauts and cosmonauts, who, out in space, also were no longer exposed to the Schumann waves. Now modern spacecrafts are said to contain a device which simulates the Schumann waves.

All the aforesaid points to the fact that the ancient teachings are correct. Mankind depends on two subtle environmental signals, the Yin from below and the Yang from above.

The urgent need for further research into the Schumann Resonance Effect

Although Schumann Resonance could easily be confirmed by measurements at the time of its discovery, it is no longer so obvious due to our atmosphere being filled with manmade radiation noise at different frequencies. This is almost drowning out the natural signals – signals that have been there through aeons of evolution. It is possible that these signals act like a natural tuning fork, not just for the biological oscillators of the brain, but for all processes of life.With the advent of new wireless technology, in particular microwaves pulsed at frequencies close to Schumann Resonance as in mobile telephony, another threat is emerging. We may be creating an environment that is literally `out of tune’ with Nature itself. And it is at this point that there is an urgent need for us to understand how everything alive responds to the most subtle changes in magnetic and electromagnetic fields surrounding us. For instance, we need to examine the possible interaction between magnetite crystals within cells and manmade magnetic fields in the environment.

There is a great need for independent research into the bio-compatibility between natural and manmade signals. By linking together the potential importance of Schumann Resonance and the dangers posed by manmade pulsed frequencies, it will become apparent that unless we find a way to use bio-compatible signals to power new technology, we may expose all life to dangers previously not encountered. We may have to pay a high price for this shortsightedness. Serious attention must now be paid to the possible biological role of standing waves in the atmosphere, so that we do not overlook the importance of oscillations in nature that may be central to consciousness and life itself.

The late Dr Neil Cherry, a fierce opponent of the frequencies used in mobile telephony, has also focused on the importance of Schumann Resonance in his publications ‘Schumann Resonances, a plausible biophysical mechanism for the human health effects of Solar/Geomagnetic Activity’ (2002), and ‘Human intelligence: The brain, an electromagnetic system synchronised by the Schumann Resonance signal’ (2003).

If organisms do in fact respond to, and perhaps depend on, electromagnetic fields as weak as that produced by Schumann resonance at 0.22-1.12 mV/m (from Cherry, 2002), this is of major significance for the development of present and future wireless technologies. Funding for research projects investigating the Schumann Resonance Effect is now being sought and scientists who support this call for research are invited to contact by e-mail.


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Energy Field changes detected by PIP
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Effects of 6-10 Hz ELF on Brain Waves

David S. Walonick

The Story of Maynooth
Shortly after completing my first experiments, my neighbor’s dog began to have seizures. Maynooth was a one year old, 190 pound Irish Wolfhound. His seizures were occurring four to five times a week. A seizure by a 190 pound dog is not a small affair. He would trash around wildly with no awareness of his surroundings. The seizures would last 10-30 minutes.

My neighbors took Maynooth to the vet, who prescribed phenobarbital to control the seizures. The drug was not effective and Maynooth continued to have regular seizures.

After discussing Maynooth’s condition with my neighbor, we decided to try a portable ELF generator that Maynooth could wear to control his seizures. Seizures are accompanied by wild fluctuations in brain wave activity. We hypothesized that a portable ELF generator could control the seizures by stabilizing Maynooth’s brain waves. If we could get Maynooth’s brain to lock-on to an ELF frequency, we could in effect, eliminate the seizures.

I constructed a portable ELF generator about the size of a pack of cigarettes. The ELF generator was powered by a nine volt battery and had two frequencies, selectable by a toggle switch (10.0 Hz and 7.83 Hz). The 10 Hz frequency was chosen because previous experiments had shown that lock-on was more likely to occur at higher frequencies (i.e., closer to the prominent frequency of the brain). The 7.83 Hz frequency was chosen because it is the resonant frequency of the Earth and naturally occurring low intensity magnetic radiation can be detected at this frequency (Schumann, 1952).

The schematic for the portable ELF generator is illustrated. It is a twin-T oscillator followed by a high power 386 amplifier. The twin-T was chosen because of its high stability and low distortion sign wave. Construction is straight forward and the placement of parts is not critical. All parts are readily available. The two 10K frequency adjustment pots should be 10-20 turn trim pots to allow precise frequency adjustment. The 10K output level adjustment pot should be set so that the output feeding the coil is less that 100 milliwatts to comply with FCC regulations (I set Maynooth’s to 10 milliwatts). The coil itself is not critical and can be wound on any iron core. Use only an alkaline or nickel-cadmium battery.

Maynooth began wearing the generator in the spring of 1988. We tried the 10 Hz frequency first. The results of the experiment were astounding to say the least. Maynooth’s seizures stopped immediately when he began wearing the generator. Furthermore, Maynooth was able to completely stop taking the phenobarbital and the seizures have remained in remission. For the first three months, Maynooth wore the generator all the time in a cloth pouch from his collar. After that, the generator was only used at night and simply placed near his sleeping area.

Maynooth has had a total of three seizures following his first use of the generator. Two of these could be traced to malfunctions with the generator. The first was a broken wire from the battery connector and the second was a dead battery. The third seizure could not be explained by a hardware malfunction, although Maynooth was only using the generator during the night and the seizure occurred during the day. It should be noted, however, that this seizure was mild in comparison to his prior episodes.

Maynooth’s owners were so convinced of the efficacy of the ELF generator, that they asked me to make a spare generator in case the one they had broke. Maynooth’s vet (at the University of Minnesota) showed curiosity in the generator, but not enough to explore it further. They preferred to remain with a drug treatment, even though it had proven to be ineffective. Fortunately, Maynooth’s owners had more sense.

Maynooth still uses the ELF generator in his sleeping area at night. The rechargeable battery is charged during the day so it is fresh each night. (The battery lasts about 6-8 hours at a 10 milliwatt power setting).

Electromagnetic Pollution
When I began my research, I was only interested in the effects of ELF’s on brain waves. I have since come to believe that ELF’s are only the tip of the iceberg. Electromagnetic radiation may be the most harmful pollutant in our society. There is mounting statistical evidence that cancer and other diseases can be triggered by electromagnetic waves.

ELF pulse-modulated radio waves work at the cellular level. Cancer and birth defects have been increasing in this country since about 1950 (as television became popular). The average resonant frequency of the body is around 82 MHz. It is no coincidence that this is near the middle of the VHF TV band.

Even low intensity 60 Hz fields are capable of causing DNA damage and weakening the immune system. Cancer cells exposed to 60 Hz electromagnetic fields for 24 hours show a sixfold increase in their growth rate.

The evidence is becoming overwhelming that cellular functions can be switched on and off through frequency specific electromagnetic radiation that induces nuclear magnetic resonance in the cell. We may find that many diseases can be caused or cured by frequency specific radiation that is ELF pulse modulated.

In our technological society, there are few places to go where you will not be exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Television, radio and microwave radiation are abundant in all metropolitan areas. High voltage 60 Hz power lines crisscross the country. Microwaves (one of the most dangerous) are becoming increasingly common. The FCC has started to grant licences to use microwaves for cellular phones.

The powers that control the energy and communications industries will stop at no end to prevent the public from learning the truth. Their financial health depends on it. Since the military is one of the largest producers of high power electromagnetic radiation, it is not likely that we can count on government intervention.

We have probably reached a point where the only solution is in the form of a portable shield device. ELF generators may be one possible solution. My current research is in this area.
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